General Knowledge Current Affairs

Monday, December 27, 2010

Career in Radiation Physics

 

Physics is a branch of science concerned with the study of properties and interactions of space, time, matter and energy. Energy is required in one form or other and is very important for the survival of life on earth and its study attracts lot of attention. Radiation is also energy and is defined as energy (in the form of light, heat or sound) which travels through any medium or space and ultimately absorbed by another body. Radiation physics is a branch of Physics which deals with the interaction of the radiation with matter in general and involves calculation of doses for radiation therapy in medical field in particular. The radiations could be ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy carried by the photon. Since the ionizing radiations could be harmful, an important ethical question is the safe extent of exposure of the radiations to humans in the industry, research institutions or for medical diagnostics. From this very property of radiations to harm the human tissues, it is imperative to have trained personnel in the field who can provide the safety measures and expert handling of all such issues. In order to moniter the establishments dealing with radiations, Atomic Energy Regulatory board (AERB) was established on November 15, 1983. Its responsibility is to monitor the establishments using radiations and give them acredition to use radiation facilities after fulfilling crieteria laid by the board. One of the mandatory requirement is to have radiation safety officer(RSO) in the organisation to monitor the usage of radiation and to curtail the extent of damage caused in case of any uneventful accident.

It is hoped that 25,000 MW of nuclear power capacity will be added through imports of nuclear reactors and fuel by 2020. With the increase of nuclear power plants in future , the human resourse for radiation safety measures will increase tremendously. Another area where the Radiation Physicist or Medical Physcist  plays important role is the calculation of safe radiation doses in medical treatment with radiations. Here also crucial role of Radiation Physcist comes into play for calculation of doses.   Thus radiation physics could not only be an alluring career option but also a challenging career with an aim for providing safety to the humans engaged in welfare of mankind by making constructive use of radiations.
Due to its tremendous scope for research besides application in medical diagnostics this  has been a very active field. The field garners lots of interest because it has provided some of the path breaking inventions and  has been instrumental in providing improved manufacturing processes, nuclear energy, and advanced medical diagnostic and treatment options. Further the field involves rich physics and generates interest from all, either physicist , biologist, chemists or medical fraternity. It is highly multidisciplinary in nature and is now backbone of the nuclear medical diagnostics.

Radiation physics is an active field of research and persons taking it as a career option can also go for the advance research as well in the field. Another point which makes it a lucrative career option is the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board’s (AERB) mandatory regulations of trained people in institutions dealing with the radiations. These institutions need to have trained radiation safety personnel for their routine work. Since hitherto it is less known field few people have ventured in this area, and the field is facing acute shortage of trained people available for organizations dealing with radiations, thus demand is high and excellent paid jobs are available. 

With the increase and better prospects of trained radiation safety personnels, many universities like Osmania University, Anna University, Manipal University, Panjab University etc. have started diploma and degree courses in radiation Physics or medical physics besides the pioneering work done by BARC, Mumbai. Under AERB regulations all medical imaging and radiation therapy machines have to be evaluated by a Qualified Medical Physicist. The medical physicist oversees quality assurance programs and is a resource for ensuring the safe use of radiation in the medical setting.

For more article visit http://www.onlinegk.com

Saturday, November 27, 2010

CAREER IN HUMAN RIGHTS

The experience of past two decades has demonstrated the crucial importance of human rights. Traditionally, the human rights violation occurred due to State or its actors, however, the contemporary time has witnessed human rights violations by individuals, institutions and at societal levels. Over the years, the National Human Rights Commissions of India has been recording and reporting a number of human rights violations including civil, political, social and economic rights. These violations and victimizations are with regard to the issues concerning right to food, right to health, right to education, rights of women against violence and exploitation, rights of Children against abuse and exploitation, rights of migrants and their violation based on caste, creed, region and region.

Nature of Job

The human rights field has huge potential and need for multiple professionals. Work in human rights can be challenging and intense. Organizations use a variety of disciplines in their approach to Social Justice, Juvenile Justice, Gender Justice, Custodial Justice, and now emerging area of Climate Justice including direct service, monitoring & evaluation, lobbying and networking, advocacy, policy development, documenting and research. Activities include research focusing on preventing and ending human rights abuses in all regions of the world, monitoring human rights development, conducting on-site fact finding and investigations, writing case studies and reports on human rights conditions, engaging in advocacy to publicize and curtail human rights violations, litigation, lobbying, and promoting human rights practices in social and political structures. In addition, human rights professionals provide advisory and educational services, refugee assistance, victim’s rehabilitation, policy analysis for national and international institutions, assistance in institution building and project development and management in the field of human rights based civil society organizations.

The human rights based job includes

1.  Human rights activist,human-rights_clip_image001_0000
2.  Human rights defender,
3.  Human rights analyst,
4.  Human rights professional,
5.  Human rights researcher,
6.  Human rights programmer,
7.  Human rights advocate,
8.  Human rights worker,
9.  Human rights teacher,
10. Human rights consultant,
11. Human rights campaigner,
12. Human right fundraiser
13. Human rights manager.

Skills required

   1. Writing skills
   2. Management skills
   3. Legal skills
   4. Communication Skills
   5. Reporting skills
   6. Research Skills
   7. Interviewing skills
   8. Language skill
   9. Inter-personal communication skills
  10. Documenting skills
  11. Fundraising skills
  12. Crisis Response Skills
  13. Advocacy Skills
  14. Active Listening and questioning Skills
  15. Teamwork skills
  16. Analytical and critical thinking skills
  17. Negotiating and Mediating Skills
  18. Conflict Resolution Skills
  19. Networking Skills

Organizations working in Human Rights

Having a Degree or Diploma or Certificate in Human Rights, one can work in the human rights field with a broad spectrum. There are governmental (National and State Human Rights Bodies), intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations (Amnesty International, CRY, Oxfam, Human Rights Watch, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiatives, Asian Centre for Human Rights, South Asian Human Rights Documentation Centre, PUCL and PUDR etc). Besides, a number of UN agencies working on the human rights issues might be useful for human rights, based employments in India and overseas as UNDP ((United Nations Development Programme), UNDESA (UN Department of Economic & Social Affairs), World Bank,  UNICEF (UN Children Fund), UNEP( UN Environment Programme), UNFPA (UN Population Fund), WHO (World Health Organization), IMF (International Monetary Fund), UN- HABITAT (UN Human Settlements Programme), FAO (Food & Agriculture Organization),  IFAD  (International Fund for Agricultural Development), ILO(International Labour Organization), ITU(International Telecom Union), UNAIDS (Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS), UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development), UNDG (UN Development Group), UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ), UNHCR (UN Refugee Agency), UNIDO (UN Industrial Development Organization),  UNIFEM (UN Development Fund for Women), OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ), UNRWA(UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East ), WFP (World Food Programme).

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Career in Library and Information Science


Librarianship as a profession provides a variety of employment opportunities. Today there are a number of career prospects in Library and Information Science. The qualified professionals are employed in various libraries and information Centers. Trained library professionals can find opportunities for employment both as teacher and as a Librarian. In fact, it is possible to choose the kind of library to suit one’s interest and background. In Librarianship, designations could be Librarian, Documentation Officer, Assistant Librarian, Deputy Librarian, Scientist (Library Science/ Documentation), Library and Information Officer, Knowledge Manager/ Officer, Information Executive, Director/Head of Library Services, Information Officer, and Information Analyst.

* In School, College, Universities;
* In Central Government Libraries.
* In the training centers of banks.
* In National Museum and Archives;
* In NGOs working in different areas.
* In R&D Centre like ICAR, CSIR, DRDO, ICSSR, ICHR, ICMR, ICFRE, etc.
* In Business Houses.
* In Foreign Embassies and High Commissions.
* In International Centers like WHO, UNESCO, UNO, World Bank etc.
* In the libraries of Ministries and other government departments.
* In National Level Documentation Centers.
* In Library Networks.
* In the newspaper libraries.
* In News Channels.
* In the Libraries of Radio Stations.
* In the Databases provider firms.
* In publishing companies for preparing Index, abstracts, bibliographies etc.
* In various digital library projects like ‘Digital Library of India’ etc.
* In Training Academies.

The role of libraries in providing widespread and inclusive access to knowledge is widely acknowledged. In today’s context, libraries have to play two distinct roles - to serve as a local centre of information and knowledge, and be a local gateway to national and global knowledge. Some of the issues under consideration of National Knowledge Commission are:

* institutional framework of libraries;
* networking;
* education, training and research;
* modernization and computerization of libraries;
* maintenance of private and personal collections and
* staff requirements to meet changing needs.

This commission has recommended the formation for the National Library Commission to strengthen the Library networks in India. The Department of Culture (DoC) has proposed setting up a National Mission for Libraries (NML) as a Central Sector Scheme. The NML will cover libraries under the DoC and the activities under it will include: National Census of Libraries; Modernisation including networking of Libraries under DoC; establishing Knowledge Centres and Digital Libraries. Recently under National Mission for Libraries there is a proposal for establishing 7000 libraries having computers with internet facility across the country.

It was recommended that the initial recruitment should be direct at the level of library and Information Assistant. The qualification requirement would be graduation and BLISc degree. Thus, the scope of librarianship becomes brighter. Career in LIS is multidimensional, ever growing bright and significantly enriching the knowledge base of the society for prosperity and progress.

Source : Employment News

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TAG: Library Science, Career in Library Science

Sunday, September 19, 2010

57th National Film Awards 2010


Bollywood marked its stamp on the 57th National Film Awards as Amitabh Bachchan won the best actor award for his performance in "Paa" and Aamir Khan- starrer "3 Idiots" was adjudged the best popular movie.

However, it was Malayalam drama "Kutty Srank" which walked away with five awards, including the best feature film.

"Kutty Srank", with Mammoothy in the lead, also won awards for best cinematography, best screenplay, best costume and a special jury recognition, which it shared with Bollywood hit "Kaminey" and Malayalam film "Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja".

Raykesh Omprakash Mehra's "Delhi 6", shot in the bylanes of Old Delhi, bagged the Nargis Dutt award for best feature film on national integration while Shyam Benegal's "Well Done Abba" was chosen as the best film on social issues.

R Balki's "Paa", was also named the best Hindi film, besides winning recognitions in the best supporting actress category (Arundhuti Nag) and best make-up (Christein Tinsley and Dominie Till).

Amit Trivedi got the best music director award for Anurag Kashyap's "Dev-D", a modern take on Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay's classic "Devdas".

The emotional number 'Behti hawa sa tha woh' from "3 Idiots" bagged the best lyrics award for Swanand Kirkere.

Ananya Chatterjee was named the best actress for her role in the Bengali film "Abohoman", which also fetched the best direction award for Rituparno Ghosh and best editing for Arghyakamal Mitra, besides being adjudged the best Bengali movie.

For more detail visit : Indian Cinema

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Commonwealth Game History

Reverend Ashley Cooper was the first person to propose the idea of having a Pan-Britannic sporting contest to foster a spirit of goodwill and understanding within the British Empire. In 1928, a key Canadian athlete, Bobby Robinson, was given the task of organizing the first ever Commonwealth Games. These Games were held in 1930, in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and saw the participation of 400 athletes from eleven countries.

Since then, the Commonwealth Games have been held every four years, except for the period during the Second World War. The Games have been known by various names such as the British Empire Games, Friendly Games and British Commonwealth Games. Since 1978, they have been known as the Commonwealth Games. Originally having only single competition sports, the 1998 Commonwealth Games at Kuala Lumpur saw a major change when team sports such as cricket, hockey and netball made their first appearance.

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In 2001, the Games Movement adopted the three values of Humanity, Equality and Destiny as the core values of the Commonwealth Games. These values inspire and connect thousands of people and signify the broad mandate for holding the Games within the Commonwealth.

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Career Scope in Home Science


According to the layman, Home Science is a subject about household chores meant to be studied by girls only. Actually Home Science is a well developed discipline of study. It does not limit itself to the mastery of home related skills of cooking, laundry, decoration, stitching etc. Being fairly broad based, a closer look will reveal that it prepares the students not just for taking care of their homes and family, but also prepare them for a large variety of careers and vocations both in wage employment and self employment. Home Science is an interdisciplinary field of knowledge with focus on Food & Nutrition, Fabric & Apparel Designing, Human Development, Resource Management and Communication & Extension. A study of home science opens up a large numbers of employment opportunities and avenues both by the way of wage employment.

Wage employment means that one works for another person or organization and receive wages or salary for services.

Self employment means that the individual is the owner of the enterprise. Lets us now take a look at the various job opportunities available under each of the vocational areas related to home science.

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Teaching: In almost all schools, Home Science and Home Science related activities are taught for which teachers with educational background of home Science are required, Home Science teachers are required in schools and degree colleges. Besides this Home Science education background also required for polytechnics, Industrial Training Institutes, Institutes, Institutes, Institutes of hotel Management and Catering etc. Training centers of anganwadi workers and other community workers also require teachers from field of Home Science. To run hobby classes or teach small groups in all vocational areas of home Science.

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